Alzheimer’s disease – the commonest cause of dementia in elderly people that is characterized by degenerative process in the brain
Bradykinesia – slowness of movement of body
Caregivers – immediate family members (spouse or child/children) or distant family members who undertake the full responsibility of taking care of the Parkinson’s Patients’ daily living needs, medical attention and consultation.
Deep Brain Stimulation surgery or DBS – a procedure whereby an end of an electrode (a thin wire) is inserted into the target area in the brain (commonly the subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus interna). The electrode is connected via a thin wire, which travels under the skin of the head and neck. The other end of the wire is connected to a pulse generator (battery) that is embedded under the skin of the chest. The pulse generator generates electrical current, which is delivered to the brain, and thus relieving the symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease (Limousin P et al, 1998).
Degenerative process – a process whereby there is rapid loss and death of particular brain cells
Delusion – abnormal thought process that is characterized by a strong belief that is not consistent with reality
Dementia – a brain disorder of elderly people that is characterized by loss of memory, change in personality, loss of judgment and intellectual deterioration
Depression – a mental disorder that is characterized by slowness of movement, loss of appetite, feelings of hopelessness and helplessness
Diagnose – the process whereby a doctor establish a diagnosis by taking history and conducting physical examination
Diagnosis – the specific term for a particular disease
Dietitian – medical personnel who specializes in dietary advice
Dopamine – a biochemical substance that acts as a messenger at the basal ganglia.
Dysautonomia – a disorder of nervous system that lead to abnormalities in blood pressure, difficulty in passing urine, difficulty in erection (impotence), and gastrointestinal problems
Dyskinesia – an abnormal body movement this is characterized by uncontrolled and excessive movement of head, body and limbs (“dancing” movement)
Essential tremor – a brain disorder that is different from Parkinson’s Disease, usually seen in the elderly people and characterized by tremor of hands and legs
Geriatrician – doctor who specializes in diseases of the elderly people
Hallucination – distorted perception of the environment that can be either visual (seeing objects that are not present in reality) and auditory (hearing sounds / noises that are not present in reality)
Insomnia– difficulty in sleeping
Motor complications – a group of abnormal movement in PD that occurs as a result of either disease progression or long-term side effect of levodopa treatment. They are different from the initial symptoms of PD such as slowness of movement, tremor and rigidity
Neurologist – a medical doctor (whose basic medical degree is recognised by, and registered with the national medical council), who has undergone training specifically in the field of Neurology (brain diseases) at established neurology centres for a minimum period of three years, and who has subsequently undergone further training specifically in Movement Disorders (Parkinson’s Disease) at established movement disorder centres for a minimum period of six months. It is preferable, but not compulsory, that the Neurologist has directly been involved in the Deep Brain Stimulation surgery previously.
Neuroprotection – the process by which any possible damage or injury to the brain cells are prevented or attenuated by a drug
Neurosurgeon – a medical doctor (whose basic medical degree is recognised by, and registered with the national medical council) who has undergone training specifically in the field of Neurosurgery (brain surgery) at neurosurgical centres for a minimum period of three years, and who must have directly performed Deep Brain Stimulation surgery for Parkinson’s Disease previously.
Parkinson’s Disease – a progressive neuro-degenerative disease, which is characterised by slowness of movement, body stiffness and tremor (uncontrollable trembling of the hands or legs or both), as defined by the United Kingdom Parkinson’s Society Brain Bank criteria (Gibb and Lees, 1988)
Parkinson’s Patients – the persons who have been diagnosed by an Independent Neurologist, as having Parkinson’s Disease, which fulfils the defined diagnostic criteria of Parkinson’s Disease
Parkinsonism – a medical condition that is characterized by slowness of movement, stiffness and tremor.
Physiotherapist – medical personnel who specializes in improving the physical mobility of patients by helping to carry out exercises for strengthening of muscles
Postural imbalance – a condition whereby one loses the ability to maintain balance and body position during standing or walking
Prevalence – the number of patients at any point in time, including already diagnosed and newly diagnosed patients
Psychiatrist – doctor who specializes in mental disorders
Psychosis – a mental state that is characterized by delusion and hallucination
Respite care – the treatment of caregivers that aims to relieve their stress and improve their quality of life
Rigidity – stiffness of upper and lower limbs
Stroke – a brain disorder that is characterized by sudden weakness of body due to blockage of blood vessels in the brain
Symptom – the patient’s complaint that indicates abnormality in the function of the body
Syndrome – a condition that is characterized by a combination of particular symptoms and physical signs, due to various medical disorders
Tremor – uncontrolled trembling of hands and legs
Wilson’s disease– an inherited disease that is characterized by excessive copper, a mineral substance, in the brain